判例法数据库

网络犯罪

侵犯计算机、数据和系统的保密性、完整性和可获得性的行为

• 非法访问电脑系统
• 非法访问电脑数据
• 制作/ 传播/ 拥有侵入电脑工具
• 採集計算機數據

以获得个人或经济利益为目的的与计算机有关的行为

• 欺诈
• 伪造
• 身份犯罪

关键词

• 电子证据

参与有组织集团

犯罪

• 约定实施严重犯罪(共谋)

参与程度

• 为进一步完成约定的明显行为

United States of America v. Svyatoslav Bondarenko et al., No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL (D. Nev. Jan 30, 2018)

事实梗概

This case involves the co-founders, administrators and members of the Infraud Organization, which was founded in 2010 and was active between 2010 and 2018. The slogan of the organization was “in fraud we trust.” The Infraud Organization operated as a criminal enterprise with its objective of financially enriching its members through cybercrimes, particularly online fraud and identity theft. The illicit acts the organization engaged in included money laundering, identity theft, counterfeit identification trafficking, bank fraud, wire fraud, among other crimes. In total, the organization caused USD 568 million in actual losses and USD 2.2 billion in intended losses. The Infraud Organization ran an online discussion forum, known as Infraud, which had over 10,000 members from around the world.

According to the Second Superseding Criminal Indictment, the roles of individuals that were part of this criminal enterprise included administrators, super moderators, moderators, vendors, VIP members, and members:

1. Administrators. Administrators were responsible for “long-term strategic planning” of the enterprise, and daily management tasks, such as determining responsibilities and levels of access of all members, vetting prospective members, deciding which members can join, and rewarding and punishing existing members.

2. Super Moderators. Super moderators were responsible for moderating content by reviewing contraband for sale, editing and deleting posts based on reviews, and mediating disputes between buyers and vendors (i.e., sellers). The content they moderated was assigned based on either geographic area or criminal expertise.

3. Moderators. Moderators have some of the same responsibilities for moderating content, but they have less privileges and authority than super moderators.

4. Vendors. Individuals who sold and/or advertised illicit goods and services on the site.

5. VIP members. VIP members were longstanding, distinguished members of the platform.

6. Members. General members of the forum.

The founders of the organization are Svyatoslav Bondarenko and Sergey Medvedev. Along with being a co-founder, Sergey Medvedev served as the administrator of the site and ran the escrow service of the organization, which held funds for a purchase in escrow until the buyer received the items purchased (in good order). He further created a virtual currency exchange service where virtual currencies were exchanged for fiat currencies, promoted, created incentives, and set prices for advertisements on Infraud. The defendant assumed leadership of the organization after Svyatoslav Bondarenko disappeared.

For quality control of contraband recovered from acts of fraud and identity theft, members provided feedback and ratings of vendors and their products. To protect individuals who are part of this criminal enterprise, measures were taken to secure the site and restrict access to the site. Svyatoslav Bondarenko established rules governing the conduct of members on Infraud and these rules were enforced by administrators, moderators, and supermoderators of the forum. Members who violated these rules were punished by, for example, being removed and banned from the site. All new members had to be vetted before being granted access to the forum.

In this case, 36 defendants were charged for their roles in the Infraud Organization. The criminal proceedings for most of these defendants are still ongoing. The defendant, one of the founders of Infraud, Sergey Medvedev, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to engage in a racketeer influenced corrupt organization. The other founder, Svyatoslav Bondarenko, is still at large. Two other defendants and members of Infraud pleaded guilty to engage in a racketeer influenced corrupt organization. Firstly, Jose Gamboa became a member of Infraud in December 2010 and advertised as vendor of custom-built ATM skimmers within the Infraud forum. Secondly, Valerian Chiochiu advised other members on the development and use of malware. He also developed malware that was used by other members to gain unauthorized access to personal and financial data and access device data. The illegally obtained information would then be sold on the Infraud forum to other Infraud members. The defendant also fraudulently purchased gift cards which were then sold on the Infraud forum to members for a profit.

作者:
UNODC, with contributions from Lea Cipriano, David Olener and Anil Ramruch, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City Univeristy of New York

交叉问题

责任

... 为了

• 既遂犯罪

... 根据

• 犯罪意图

... 作为涉及方

• 主犯
• 参与者、调解人、从犯

犯罪

详情

• 捲入到有组织犯罪集团 (第 2 条(a) CTOC)
• 發生跨一個(或多個)國際邊界(跨國)
  • 所涉国家:
  • 侦查

    所涉机构

    • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) (Las Vegas Office)
    • Henderson Police Department (Nevada, USA)
    • Department of Justice (Office of International Affairs and International Organized Crime Intelligence and Operations Center) (United States of America)
    • City of London Police (Dedicated Card and Payment Crime Unit) (United Kingdom)
    • Australian Federal Police
    • Attorney-General’s Department (Australia)
    • International Crime Cooperation Central Authority (Australia)
    • Grand Ducal Police (Luxembourg)
    • Ministry of Justice (France)
    • L’Office Central de Lutte contre la Criminalité liée aux Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (France)
    • Paris Prosecutor's Office (France)
    • Italian National Police (Postal and Communications Police)
    • Interpol Rome
    • U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (Regional Security Office at U.S. Embassy Tirana, Albania)
    • Interpol Tirana
    • Special Prosecution Office for High-Tech Crime of the Republic of Serbia
    • Ministry of Justice (Kosovo)
    • Basic Prosecution Office Pristina (Kosovo)

    没收和扣押

    评论

    The three defendants that have pleaded guilty at the time of writing have agreed to forfeit proceeds of crime in their plea agreements. More specifically, Jose Gamboa agreed to forfeit USD 208,446.00; Sergey Medvedev USD 1,041,517.84; and Valerian Chiochiu USD 1,548,568.77. At the state of the proceedings at the time of writing, this would make a total of USD 2,798,532.61, however, no final forfeiture order has been issued thus far.

     

    特殊偵查手段

    • 特殊偵查手段
    • 暗中活动/假冒身份/渗透

    评论

    Undercover HIS investigators gained access to the forum and interacted with members, purchasing illicit goods and services from members of the forum.

     

    国际合作

    所涉国家

    阿尔巴尼亚

    澳大利亚

    法国

    意大利

    卢森堡

    塞尔维亚

    大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国

    美利坚合众国

    措施

    • 司法协助
    • 国际执法合作(包括国际刑警组织)

    电子证据

    • 电子证据/数字证据

    程序步骤

    法律制度:
    习惯法
    最新的法院:
    初审法院
    诉讼类型:
    刑事的
     
     
    诉讼 #1:
  • 阶段:
    初审
  • 官方案件编号:
    United States of America v. Jose Gamboa, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Aug 20, 2019)
  • 裁决日期:
    20 August 2019

    法院

    法院名称

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    地点

  • 城市/城镇:
    Las Vegas
  • 省:
    Nevada
  • • 刑事的

    说明

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement on 20 August 2019. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    诉讼 #2:
  • 阶段:
    初审
  • 官方案件编号:
    United States of America v. Sergey Medvedev, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Jun 26, 2020)
  • 法院

    法院名称

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    地点

  • 城市/城镇:
    Las Vegas
  • 省:
    Nevada
  • • 刑事的

    说明

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement in relation to the racketeering charge on 26 June 2020. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    裁决日期:
    26 June 2020
    诉讼 #3:
  • 阶段:
    初审
  • 官方案件编号:
    United States of America v. Valerian Chiochiu, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL (D. Nev. Jul 31, 2020).
  • 法院

    法院名称

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    地点

  • 城市/城镇:
    Las Vegas
  • 省:
    Nevada
  • • 刑事的

    说明

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement on 31 July 2020. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    裁决日期:
    31 July 2020

    被告/ 初审被申请人

    被告:
    Svyatoslav Bondarenko
    性别:
    被告:
    Sergey Medvedev
    性别:
    被告:
    Amjad Ali
    性别:
    被告:
    Roland Patrick N'Djimbi Tchikaya
    性别:
    被告:
    Arnaldo Sanchez Torteya
    性别:
    被告:
    Miroslav Kovacevic
    性别:
    被告:
    Frederick Thomas
    性别:
    被告:
    Osama Abdelhamed
    性别:
    被告:
    Besart Hoxha
    性别:
    被告:
    Raihan Ahmed
    性别:
    被告:
    Andrey Sergeevich Novak
    性别:
    被告:
    Valerian Chiochiu
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #8
    性别:
    被告:
    Gennaro Fioretti
    性别:
    被告:
    Edgar Rojas
    性别:
    被告:
    John Telusma
    性别:
    被告:
    Rami Fawaz
    性别:
    被告:
    Muhammad Shiraz
    性别:
    被告:
    Jose Gamboa
    性别:
    被告:
    Alexey Klimenko
    性别:
    被告:
    Edward Lavoile
    性别:
    被告:
    Anthony Nnamdi Okeakpu
    性别:
    被告:
    Pius Sushil Wilson
    性别:
    被告:
    Muhammad Khan
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #7
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #1
    性别:
    被告:
    David Jonathan Vargas
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #2
    性别:
    被告:
    Marko Leopard
    性别:
    被告:
    Taimoor Zaman
    性别:
    被告:
    Aldo Ymeraj
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #4
    性别:
    被告:
    Liridon Musliu
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #5
    性别:
    被告:
    Mena Mouries Abd El-Malak
    性别:
    被告:
    John Doe #6
    性别:

    指控/索赔/裁决

    被告:
    Svyatoslav Bondarenko
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    陪审团裁决:
    Guilty
    被告:
    Sergey Medvedev
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    陪审团裁决:
    Guilty
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    指控详情:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (8 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    陪审团裁决:
    Withdrawn
    被告:
    Amjad Ali
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Roland Patrick N'Djimbi Tchikaya
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Arnaldo Sanchez Torteya
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Miroslav Kovacevic
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Frederick Thomas
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Osama Abdelhamed
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Besart Hoxha
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Raihan Ahmed
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Andrey Sergeevich Novak
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    指控详情:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (3 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    被告:
    Valerian Chiochiu
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    陪审团裁决:
    Guilty
    被告:
    John Doe #8
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Gennaro Fioretti
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Edgar Rojas
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    John Telusma
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Rami Fawaz
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Muhammad Shiraz
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Jose Gamboa
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    陪审团裁决:
    Guilty
    被告:
    Alexey Klimenko
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Edward Lavoile
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Anthony Nnamdi Okeakpu
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Pius Sushil Wilson
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Muhammad Khan
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    John Doe #7
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    John Doe #1
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    David Jonathan Vargas
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    John Doe #2
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Marko Leopard
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Taimoor Zaman
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Aldo Ymeraj
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    John Doe #4
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    Liridon Musliu
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    指控详情:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (1 count)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    被告:
    John Doe #5
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    指控详情:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (1 count)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    被告:
    Mena Mouries Abd El-Malak
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    被告:
    John Doe #6
    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    指控详情:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    立法/法规/法典:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    指控详情:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (3 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    法院

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

    来源/引文

    United States of America v. Svyatoslav Bondarenko et al., No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL, Second Superseding Criminal Indictment (D. Nev. Jan 30, 2018).

    United States of America v. Jose Gamboa, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Aug 20, 2019)

    United States of America v. Sergey Medvedev, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-VCF, Plea Agreement (D. Nev. Jun 26, 2020).

    United States of America v. Valerian Chiochiu, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL, Plea Agreement (D. Nev. Jul 31, 2020).

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, “Thirty-six Defendants Indicted for Alleged Roles in Transnational Criminal Organization Responsible for More than $530 Million in Losses from Cybercrimes” 7 February 2018.

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, “Malware Author Pleads Guilty for Role in Transnational Cybercrime Organization Responsible for more than $568 Million in Losses” 31 July 2020.