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Review and assessment questions

a) How does the definition of "organized criminal group" provided in the Organized Crime Convention differ from existing academic and policy definitions?

b) One of the criticisms of the "transnational" requirement of the Organized Crime Convention is that it necessarily implies cross-border activity when in fact not all crimes that fall within the type actually cross borders. Does the Organized Crime Convention deal with this issue? Can you name some examples of organized crime activities that stay within national borders? Can a purely local criminal activity be a legitimate concern for other States? What is the threshold at which purely domestic conduct is sufficiently serious to justify foreign or international concern?

c) In whatever area organized criminal groups operate, they often aim to secure monopoly in their criminal enterprises. What is monopoly in this context and why is it important for organized criminal groups?

d) Transnational crime involves the cross-border movement of one or more of the following: a) individuals; b) goods; c) information. Discuss different forms of transnational crime and the specific elements of the criminal conduct that cross borders. Can you think of an example of transnational organized crime, in which no physical border crossing takes place?

e) What are the differences and similarities between organized criminal groups and terrorist organizations?

f) Can groups of individuals without any discernible structure count as "organized criminal groups"?

g) How different is the nature of harm produced by consensual and non-consensual activities of organized criminal groups?

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