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Delincuencia cibernética

Actos contra la confidencialidad, integridad y disponibilidad de ordenador, Datos y Sistemas

• Acceso ilícito a sistemas informáticos
• Acceso ilícito a datos electrónicos
• Producción/ distribución/ posesión de instrumentos de uso indebido de la informática
• Adquisición de datos de la computadora

Actos relacionados con la informática para beneficio personal o financiera

• Fraude
• Falsificación
• Delitos relacionados con la identidad

Palabras clave

• Pruebas electrónicas

Participación en un grupo delictivo organizado

Delitos

• Acuerdo para cometer un delito grave (confabulación)

Grado de participación

• Acto manifiesto para llevar adelante el acuerdo

United States of America v. Svyatoslav Bondarenko et al., No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL (D. Nev. Jan 30, 2018)

Resumen de los hechos

This case involves the co-founders, administrators and members of the Infraud Organization, which was founded in 2010 and was active between 2010 and 2018. The slogan of the organization was “in fraud we trust.” The Infraud Organization operated as a criminal enterprise with its objective of financially enriching its members through cybercrimes, particularly online fraud and identity theft. The illicit acts the organization engaged in included money laundering, identity theft, counterfeit identification trafficking, bank fraud, wire fraud, among other crimes. In total, the organization caused USD 568 million in actual losses and USD 2.2 billion in intended losses. The Infraud Organization ran an online discussion forum, known as Infraud, which had over 10,000 members from around the world.

According to the Second Superseding Criminal Indictment, the roles of individuals that were part of this criminal enterprise included administrators, super moderators, moderators, vendors, VIP members, and members:

1. Administrators. Administrators were responsible for “long-term strategic planning” of the enterprise, and daily management tasks, such as determining responsibilities and levels of access of all members, vetting prospective members, deciding which members can join, and rewarding and punishing existing members.

2. Super Moderators. Super moderators were responsible for moderating content by reviewing contraband for sale, editing and deleting posts based on reviews, and mediating disputes between buyers and vendors (i.e., sellers). The content they moderated was assigned based on either geographic area or criminal expertise.

3. Moderators. Moderators have some of the same responsibilities for moderating content, but they have less privileges and authority than super moderators.

4. Vendors. Individuals who sold and/or advertised illicit goods and services on the site.

5. VIP members. VIP members were longstanding, distinguished members of the platform.

6. Members. General members of the forum.

The founders of the organization are Svyatoslav Bondarenko and Sergey Medvedev. Along with being a co-founder, Sergey Medvedev served as the administrator of the site and ran the escrow service of the organization, which held funds for a purchase in escrow until the buyer received the items purchased (in good order). He further created a virtual currency exchange service where virtual currencies were exchanged for fiat currencies, promoted, created incentives, and set prices for advertisements on Infraud. The defendant assumed leadership of the organization after Svyatoslav Bondarenko disappeared.

For quality control of contraband recovered from acts of fraud and identity theft, members provided feedback and ratings of vendors and their products. To protect individuals who are part of this criminal enterprise, measures were taken to secure the site and restrict access to the site. Svyatoslav Bondarenko established rules governing the conduct of members on Infraud and these rules were enforced by administrators, moderators, and supermoderators of the forum. Members who violated these rules were punished by, for example, being removed and banned from the site. All new members had to be vetted before being granted access to the forum.

In this case, 36 defendants were charged for their roles in the Infraud Organization. The criminal proceedings for most of these defendants are still ongoing. The defendant, one of the founders of Infraud, Sergey Medvedev, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to engage in a racketeer influenced corrupt organization. The other founder, Svyatoslav Bondarenko, is still at large. Two other defendants and members of Infraud pleaded guilty to engage in a racketeer influenced corrupt organization. Firstly, Jose Gamboa became a member of Infraud in December 2010 and advertised as vendor of custom-built ATM skimmers within the Infraud forum. Secondly, Valerian Chiochiu advised other members on the development and use of malware. He also developed malware that was used by other members to gain unauthorized access to personal and financial data and access device data. The illegally obtained information would then be sold on the Infraud forum to other Infraud members. The defendant also fraudulently purchased gift cards which were then sold on the Infraud forum to members for a profit.

Autor:
UNODC, with contributions from Lea Cipriano, David Olener and Anil Ramruch, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City Univeristy of New York

Cuestiones transversales

Responsabilidad

Responsabilidad por

• Delito consumado

Base de responsabilidad

• Intención dolosa

Responsabilidad implica

• Delincuentes principales
• Participante, Facilitador, Cómplice

Delincuente/Delito

Detalles

• Participa en el grupo delictivo organizado (Articulo 2(a) CTOC)
• Ocurrió a través de uno (o más) de las fronteras internacionales (transnacional)
  • Países interesados:
  • Investigación

    Organismos interesados

    • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) (Las Vegas Office)
    • Henderson Police Department (Nevada, USA)
    • Department of Justice (Office of International Affairs and International Organized Crime Intelligence and Operations Center) (United States of America)
    • City of London Police (Dedicated Card and Payment Crime Unit) (United Kingdom)
    • Australian Federal Police
    • Attorney-General’s Department (Australia)
    • International Crime Cooperation Central Authority (Australia)
    • Grand Ducal Police (Luxembourg)
    • Ministry of Justice (France)
    • L’Office Central de Lutte contre la Criminalité liée aux Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (France)
    • Paris Prosecutor's Office (France)
    • Italian National Police (Postal and Communications Police)
    • Interpol Rome
    • U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (Regional Security Office at U.S. Embassy Tirana, Albania)
    • Interpol Tirana
    • Special Prosecution Office for High-Tech Crime of the Republic of Serbia
    • Ministry of Justice (Kosovo)
    • Basic Prosecution Office Pristina (Kosovo)

    Incautación y decomiso

    Observaciones

    The three defendants that have pleaded guilty at the time of writing have agreed to forfeit proceeds of crime in their plea agreements. More specifically, Jose Gamboa agreed to forfeit USD 208,446.00; Sergey Medvedev USD 1,041,517.84; and Valerian Chiochiu USD 1,548,568.77. At the state of the proceedings at the time of writing, this would make a total of USD 2,798,532.61, however, no final forfeiture order has been issued thus far.

     

    Técnicas especiales de investigación

    • Técnicas especiales de investigación
    • Operaciones encubiertas/Identidades ficticias/Infiltración

    Observaciones

    Undercover HIS investigators gained access to the forum and interacted with members, purchasing illicit goods and services from members of the forum.

     

    Cooperación internacional

    Países interesados

    Albania

    Australia

    Francia

    Italia

    Luxemburgo

    Serbia

    Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte

    Estados Unidos de América

    Medidas

    • Asistencia judicial recíproca
    • Cooperación internacional en materia de aplicación de la ley (incluida la INTERPOL)

    Pruebas electrónicas

    ???caseLaw.crossCuttingIssues.electronicEvidence.details???

    • Pruebas electrónicas/Pruebas digitales

    Información sobre el procedimiento

    Sistema jurídico:
    Derecho anglosajón
    Última sentencia judicial:
    Tribunal de primera instancia
    Tipo de Proceso:
    Penal
     
     
    Proceder #1:
  • Fase:
    primer proceso
  • Código de referencia oficial de la causa:
    United States of America v. Jose Gamboa, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Aug 20, 2019)
  • Fecha de la Decisión:
    20 August 2019

    Tribunal

    Título de la Tribunal

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    Localidad

  • Ciudad/Pueblo:
    Las Vegas
  • Provincia:
    Nevada
  • • Penal

    Descripción

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement on 20 August 2019. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    Proceder #2:
  • Fase:
    primer proceso
  • Código de referencia oficial de la causa:
    United States of America v. Sergey Medvedev, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Jun 26, 2020)
  • Tribunal

    Título de la Tribunal

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    Localidad

  • Ciudad/Pueblo:
    Las Vegas
  • Provincia:
    Nevada
  • • Penal

    Descripción

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement in relation to the racketeering charge on 26 June 2020. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    Fecha de la Decisión:
    26 June 2020
    Proceder #3:
  • Fase:
    primer proceso
  • Código de referencia oficial de la causa:
    United States of America v. Valerian Chiochiu, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL (D. Nev. Jul 31, 2020).
  • Tribunal

    Título de la Tribunal

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    Localidad

  • Ciudad/Pueblo:
    Las Vegas
  • Provincia:
    Nevada
  • • Penal

    Descripción

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement on 31 July 2020. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    Fecha de la Decisión:
    31 July 2020

    Acusado / Demandado de primera instancia

    Acusado:
    Svyatoslav Bondarenko
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Sergey Medvedev
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Amjad Ali
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Roland Patrick N'Djimbi Tchikaya
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Arnaldo Sanchez Torteya
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Miroslav Kovacevic
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Frederick Thomas
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Osama Abdelhamed
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Besart Hoxha
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Raihan Ahmed
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Andrey Sergeevich Novak
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Valerian Chiochiu
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #8
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Gennaro Fioretti
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Edgar Rojas
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Telusma
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Rami Fawaz
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Muhammad Shiraz
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Jose Gamboa
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Alexey Klimenko
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Edward Lavoile
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Anthony Nnamdi Okeakpu
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Pius Sushil Wilson
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Muhammad Khan
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #7
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #1
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    David Jonathan Vargas
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #2
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Marko Leopard
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Taimoor Zaman
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Aldo Ymeraj
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #4
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Liridon Musliu
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #5
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    Mena Mouries Abd El-Malak
    Sexo:
    Hombre
    Acusado:
    John Doe #6
    Sexo:
    Hombre

    Cargos/Acusaciones/Decisiones

    Acusado:
    Svyatoslav Bondarenko
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Veredicto:
    Guilty
    Acusado:
    Sergey Medvedev
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Veredicto:
    Guilty
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Detalles de cargos:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (8 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Veredicto:
    Withdrawn
    Acusado:
    Amjad Ali
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Roland Patrick N'Djimbi Tchikaya
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Arnaldo Sanchez Torteya
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Miroslav Kovacevic
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Frederick Thomas
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Osama Abdelhamed
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Besart Hoxha
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Raihan Ahmed
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Andrey Sergeevich Novak
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Detalles de cargos:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (3 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Acusado:
    Valerian Chiochiu
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Veredicto:
    Guilty
    Acusado:
    John Doe #8
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Gennaro Fioretti
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Edgar Rojas
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    John Telusma
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Rami Fawaz
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Muhammad Shiraz
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Jose Gamboa
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Veredicto:
    Guilty
    Acusado:
    Alexey Klimenko
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Edward Lavoile
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Anthony Nnamdi Okeakpu
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Pius Sushil Wilson
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Muhammad Khan
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    John Doe #7
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    John Doe #1
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    David Jonathan Vargas
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    John Doe #2
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Marko Leopard
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Taimoor Zaman
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Aldo Ymeraj
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    John Doe #4
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    Liridon Musliu
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Detalles de cargos:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (1 count)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Acusado:
    John Doe #5
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Detalles de cargos:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (1 count)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Acusado:
    Mena Mouries Abd El-Malak
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Acusado:
    John Doe #6
    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Detalles de cargos:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Legislación/Código:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Detalles de cargos:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (3 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Tribunal

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

    Fuentes/Citas

    United States of America v. Svyatoslav Bondarenko et al., No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL, Second Superseding Criminal Indictment (D. Nev. Jan 30, 2018).

    United States of America v. Jose Gamboa, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Aug 20, 2019)

    United States of America v. Sergey Medvedev, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-VCF, Plea Agreement (D. Nev. Jun 26, 2020).

    United States of America v. Valerian Chiochiu, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL, Plea Agreement (D. Nev. Jul 31, 2020).

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, “Thirty-six Defendants Indicted for Alleged Roles in Transnational Criminal Organization Responsible for More than $530 Million in Losses from Cybercrimes” 7 February 2018.

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, “Malware Author Pleads Guilty for Role in Transnational Cybercrime Organization Responsible for more than $568 Million in Losses” 31 July 2020.