The sections on the different relevant actors in the smuggling process emphasized the many actors, means of evidence and investigative techniques called upon in the context of smuggling investigations, as well as the underpinning relationships. It is important to regulate coordination, interaction, communication and hierarchical referrals in the development of investigations. Standard operating procedures for both intra- and inter-agency cooperation, guidelines or rules are likely to be of great assistance. For instance, as highlighted in Module 2, it is critical that the timing of interventions is regulated, together with the role and duties of frontline officers both during and after debriefing of migrants. Clearly, and as noted earlier, the collaboration between law enforcement, the private sector and NGOs must be well established. The same is applicable to cooperation between different law enforcement units and between law enforcement and other State entities (such as labour and health and safety inspectorates). The level and form of regulation of this cooperation might vary according to the needs and specifics of the local context and national law (see also UNODC, SOM Working Group 2012).