This Module has emphasized that whether it is in relation to regulating possession of firearms, maintaining adequate records on transfer of possession, or ensuring proper destruction and deactivation of firearms, global and regional instruments designed to prevent and reduce illicit acquisition, manufacture and trafficking are only the first step in achieving this goal. Very few international or regional agreements, whether legally binding or not, have the enforcement powers within them needed to bring results at the international or global level. Member States bear the responsibility for transposing and enforcing through national legislation the commitments taken at global or regional level. The next step is the ways in which states develop national policies, legislation and measures, which lead to effective action, be that through appropriate training, education, or sanctions. Some states have the capacity and willpower to develop these mechanisms without assistance, but another vital aspect is developing mechanisms of assistance to states regarding their firearms control framework.
The capacity to create regulations in this area does not exist in isolation. This process is part of the bilateral, regional and international cooperation, undertaken by relevant national bodies, and also seeks dialogue with manufacturers, dealers, importers, exporters, brokers and commercial carriers of firearms.