Base de données Jurisprudence

Cybercriminalité

Actes contre la confidentialité , l'intégrité et la disponibilité des données informatiques , et des systèmes

• Accès illégal à un système informatique
• Accès illégal à des données informatiques
• Production/ diffusion/ possession d’outils informatiques malveillants
• acquisition de données de l'ordinateur

Actes relatifs à l'informatique pour le gain personnel ou financier

• Fraude
• Contrefaçon
• Infractions liées à l’identité

Mots-clefs

• Preuves électroniques

Participation à un groupe organisé

Infractions

• Entente en vue de commettre une infraction grave

Degré d’implication

• Acte manifeste commis en vertu d’une entente

United States of America v. Svyatoslav Bondarenko et al., No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL (D. Nev. Jan 30, 2018)

Résumé des faits

This case involves the co-founders, administrators and members of the Infraud Organization, which was founded in 2010 and was active between 2010 and 2018. The slogan of the organization was “in fraud we trust.” The Infraud Organization operated as a criminal enterprise with its objective of financially enriching its members through cybercrimes, particularly online fraud and identity theft. The illicit acts the organization engaged in included money laundering, identity theft, counterfeit identification trafficking, bank fraud, wire fraud, among other crimes. In total, the organization caused USD 568 million in actual losses and USD 2.2 billion in intended losses. The Infraud Organization ran an online discussion forum, known as Infraud, which had over 10,000 members from around the world.

According to the Second Superseding Criminal Indictment, the roles of individuals that were part of this criminal enterprise included administrators, super moderators, moderators, vendors, VIP members, and members:

1. Administrators. Administrators were responsible for “long-term strategic planning” of the enterprise, and daily management tasks, such as determining responsibilities and levels of access of all members, vetting prospective members, deciding which members can join, and rewarding and punishing existing members.

2. Super Moderators. Super moderators were responsible for moderating content by reviewing contraband for sale, editing and deleting posts based on reviews, and mediating disputes between buyers and vendors (i.e., sellers). The content they moderated was assigned based on either geographic area or criminal expertise.

3. Moderators. Moderators have some of the same responsibilities for moderating content, but they have less privileges and authority than super moderators.

4. Vendors. Individuals who sold and/or advertised illicit goods and services on the site.

5. VIP members. VIP members were longstanding, distinguished members of the platform.

6. Members. General members of the forum.

The founders of the organization are Svyatoslav Bondarenko and Sergey Medvedev. Along with being a co-founder, Sergey Medvedev served as the administrator of the site and ran the escrow service of the organization, which held funds for a purchase in escrow until the buyer received the items purchased (in good order). He further created a virtual currency exchange service where virtual currencies were exchanged for fiat currencies, promoted, created incentives, and set prices for advertisements on Infraud. The defendant assumed leadership of the organization after Svyatoslav Bondarenko disappeared.

For quality control of contraband recovered from acts of fraud and identity theft, members provided feedback and ratings of vendors and their products. To protect individuals who are part of this criminal enterprise, measures were taken to secure the site and restrict access to the site. Svyatoslav Bondarenko established rules governing the conduct of members on Infraud and these rules were enforced by administrators, moderators, and supermoderators of the forum. Members who violated these rules were punished by, for example, being removed and banned from the site. All new members had to be vetted before being granted access to the forum.

In this case, 36 defendants were charged for their roles in the Infraud Organization. The criminal proceedings for most of these defendants are still ongoing. The defendant, one of the founders of Infraud, Sergey Medvedev, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to engage in a racketeer influenced corrupt organization. The other founder, Svyatoslav Bondarenko, is still at large. Two other defendants and members of Infraud pleaded guilty to engage in a racketeer influenced corrupt organization. Firstly, Jose Gamboa became a member of Infraud in December 2010 and advertised as vendor of custom-built ATM skimmers within the Infraud forum. Secondly, Valerian Chiochiu advised other members on the development and use of malware. He also developed malware that was used by other members to gain unauthorized access to personal and financial data and access device data. The illegally obtained information would then be sold on the Infraud forum to other Infraud members. The defendant also fraudulently purchased gift cards which were then sold on the Infraud forum to members for a profit.

Auteur:
UNODC, with contributions from Lea Cipriano, David Olener and Anil Ramruch, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City Univeristy of New York

Questions transversales

Responsabilité

Responsabilité pour

• Infraction consommée

Responsabilité fondée sur

• Intention criminelle

Responsabilité impliquant

• Auteur principal (d’une infraction)
• Participant, Facilitateur, Accessoire

Commission d’une infraction

Détails

• Impliqué dans un groupe criminel organisé (Article 2(a) CTOC)
• Produite dans un (ou plusieurs) des frontières internationales (transnational)
  • Pays concernés:
  • enquête

    Organismes concernés

    • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) (Las Vegas Office)
    • Henderson Police Department (Nevada, USA)
    • Department of Justice (Office of International Affairs and International Organized Crime Intelligence and Operations Center) (United States of America)
    • City of London Police (Dedicated Card and Payment Crime Unit) (United Kingdom)
    • Australian Federal Police
    • Attorney-General’s Department (Australia)
    • International Crime Cooperation Central Authority (Australia)
    • Grand Ducal Police (Luxembourg)
    • Ministry of Justice (France)
    • L’Office Central de Lutte contre la Criminalité liée aux Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (France)
    • Paris Prosecutor's Office (France)
    • Italian National Police (Postal and Communications Police)
    • Interpol Rome
    • U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (Regional Security Office at U.S. Embassy Tirana, Albania)
    • Interpol Tirana
    • Special Prosecution Office for High-Tech Crime of the Republic of Serbia
    • Ministry of Justice (Kosovo)
    • Basic Prosecution Office Pristina (Kosovo)

    Confiscation et saisie

    Observations

    The three defendants that have pleaded guilty at the time of writing have agreed to forfeit proceeds of crime in their plea agreements. More specifically, Jose Gamboa agreed to forfeit USD 208,446.00; Sergey Medvedev USD 1,041,517.84; and Valerian Chiochiu USD 1,548,568.77. At the state of the proceedings at the time of writing, this would make a total of USD 2,798,532.61, however, no final forfeiture order has been issued thus far.

     

    Techniques spéciales d'enquête

    • Techniques spéciales d'enquête
    • Opération(s) d’infiltration/identités d’emprunt/infiltration

    Observations

    Undercover HIS investigators gained access to the forum and interacted with members, purchasing illicit goods and services from members of the forum.

     

    Coopération internationale

    Pays concernés

    Albanie

    Australie

    France

    Italie

    Luxembourg

    Serbie

    Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord

    États-Unis d'Amérique

    Mesures

    • Entraide judiciaire
    • Coopération internationale en matière de détection et de répression (y compris INTERPOL)

    Preuves électroniques

    • Preuve électronique/preuve numérique

    Informations sur la procédure

    Système juridique:
    Droit commun
    Décision judiciaire la plus récente:
    Tribunal de première instance
    Type d'Action Juridique:
    Criminel / pénal
     
     
    Procédure #1:
  • Étape:
    premier jugement
  • Numéro de dossier officiel:
    United States of America v. Jose Gamboa, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Aug 20, 2019)
  • Date de décisions:
    20 August 2019

    Tribunal

    Titre

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    Location

  • Ville:
    Las Vegas
  • Province:
    Nevada
  • • Criminel / pénal

    Description

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement on 20 August 2019. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    Procédure #2:
  • Étape:
    premier jugement
  • Numéro de dossier officiel:
    United States of America v. Sergey Medvedev, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Jun 26, 2020)
  • Tribunal

    Titre

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    Location

  • Ville:
    Las Vegas
  • Province:
    Nevada
  • • Criminel / pénal

    Description

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement in relation to the racketeering charge on 26 June 2020. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    Date de décisions:
    26 June 2020
    Procédure #3:
  • Étape:
    premier jugement
  • Numéro de dossier officiel:
    United States of America v. Valerian Chiochiu, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL (D. Nev. Jul 31, 2020).
  • Tribunal

    Titre

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

     

    Location

  • Ville:
    Las Vegas
  • Province:
    Nevada
  • • Criminel / pénal

    Description

    The defendant entered into a plea agreement on 31 July 2020. At the time of writing, the defendant has not been sentenced.

     
    Date de décisions:
    31 July 2020

    Défendeurs / Répondants de la première instance

    Prévenu:
    Svyatoslav Bondarenko
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Sergey Medvedev
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Amjad Ali
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Roland Patrick N'Djimbi Tchikaya
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Arnaldo Sanchez Torteya
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Miroslav Kovacevic
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Frederick Thomas
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Osama Abdelhamed
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Besart Hoxha
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Raihan Ahmed
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Andrey Sergeevich Novak
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Valerian Chiochiu
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #8
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Gennaro Fioretti
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Edgar Rojas
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Telusma
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Rami Fawaz
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Muhammad Shiraz
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Jose Gamboa
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Alexey Klimenko
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Edward Lavoile
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Anthony Nnamdi Okeakpu
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Pius Sushil Wilson
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Muhammad Khan
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #7
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #1
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    David Jonathan Vargas
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #2
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Marko Leopard
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Taimoor Zaman
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Aldo Ymeraj
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #4
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Liridon Musliu
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #5
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    Mena Mouries Abd El-Malak
    Sexe:
    Homme
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #6
    Sexe:
    Homme

    Accusations / Demandes d’indemnité / Décisions

    Prévenu:
    Svyatoslav Bondarenko
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Verdict:
    Guilty
    Prévenu:
    Sergey Medvedev
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Verdict:
    Guilty
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Détails de charges:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (8 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Verdict:
    Withdrawn
    Prévenu:
    Amjad Ali
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Roland Patrick N'Djimbi Tchikaya
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Arnaldo Sanchez Torteya
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Miroslav Kovacevic
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Frederick Thomas
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Osama Abdelhamed
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Besart Hoxha
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Raihan Ahmed
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Andrey Sergeevich Novak
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Détails de charges:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (3 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Prévenu:
    Valerian Chiochiu
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Verdict:
    Guilty
    Prévenu:
    John Doe #8
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Gennaro Fioretti
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Edgar Rojas
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    John Telusma
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Rami Fawaz
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Muhammad Shiraz
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Jose Gamboa
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Verdict:
    Guilty
    Prévenu:
    Alexey Klimenko
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Edward Lavoile
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Anthony Nnamdi Okeakpu
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Pius Sushil Wilson
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Muhammad Khan
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    John Doe #7
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    John Doe #1
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    David Jonathan Vargas
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    John Doe #2
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Marko Leopard
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Taimoor Zaman
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Aldo Ymeraj
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    John Doe #4
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    Liridon Musliu
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Détails de charges:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (1 count)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Prévenu:
    John Doe #5
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Détails de charges:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (1 count)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Prévenu:
    Mena Mouries Abd El-Malak
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Prévenu:
    John Doe #6
    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. § 1962(d)

    Détails de charges:

    Conspiracy to engage in a Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization

    Législation/Code:

    18 U.S.C. §§ 1029(a)(3) and 2

    Détails de charges:

    Possession of Fifteen or More Counterfeit and Unauthorized Access Devices (3 counts)

    The charge did not only include the possession but also aiding and abetting the possession of others.

    Tribunal

    U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada

    Sources / citations

    United States of America v. Svyatoslav Bondarenko et al., No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL, Second Superseding Criminal Indictment (D. Nev. Jan 30, 2018).

    United States of America v. Jose Gamboa, No. 2:17-CR-306-JCM-VCF (D. Nev. Aug 20, 2019)

    United States of America v. Sergey Medvedev, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-VCF, Plea Agreement (D. Nev. Jun 26, 2020).

    United States of America v. Valerian Chiochiu, No. 2:17-CR-00306-JCM-PAL, Plea Agreement (D. Nev. Jul 31, 2020).

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, “Thirty-six Defendants Indicted for Alleged Roles in Transnational Criminal Organization Responsible for More than $530 Million in Losses from Cybercrimes” 7 February 2018.

    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, “Malware Author Pleads Guilty for Role in Transnational Cybercrime Organization Responsible for more than $568 Million in Losses” 31 July 2020.