This module is a resource for lecturers


Personal data is sought by both criminals and cybercriminals and used in the commission of crime and cybercrime. This personal data can be obtained from a variety of sources (these sources are discussed in Cybercrime Module 4 on Introduction to Digital Forensics). This personal data can reveal information about individuals' age, race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, religious and political beliefs, sexual orientation, thoughts, preferences, hobbies, medical history and concerns, psychological disorders, profession, employment status, military service, affiliations, relationships, geolocation, habits, routines, and other activities, among other information (see Cybercrime Module 4 on Introduction to Digital Forensics). This personal data, when aggregated, can provide an almost complete picture of individuals' personal and professional lives.

This Module critically examines the impact of data aggregation, as well as the impact of data collection, storage, analysis, use, and sharing, on privacy and security. Specifically, this Module covers privacy as a human right, the relationship between privacy and security, the ways in which cybercrime compromises privacy and data security, and data protection and breach notification laws, as well as the ways in which data is (and can be) protected to secure persons, property, and information.


The way cybercrime investigations may impact privacy, especially with regards to the monitoring of suspects, covert surveillance, and data retention, preservation, and access, are discussed in different Modules; namely, Module 3 on Legal Frameworks and Human Rights; Module 5 on Cybercrime Investigation; Module 6 Practical Aspects of Cybercrime Investigations and Digital Forensics; and Module 7 on International Cooperation against Cybercrime.

Learning Outcomes

  • Discuss privacy and its importance as a human right
  • Identify and analyse the impact of cybercrime on privacy
  • Critically evaluate the relationship between security and privacy
  • Critically assess data protection and breach notification laws and practices across nations
  • Critically evaluate data protection enforcement practices and recommend effective ways to protect data
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