The Module presented the main global international and regional instruments on firearms and conventional weapons, highlighting their similarities and differences. The presented instruments aim to develop common approaches at global and regional levels to address the control over licit and illicit firearms and SALW. They reflect the criminal justice response to counter illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms by criminalizing, investigating, including tracing firearms, and prosecuting these activities - a disarmament approach to reduce the weapons in illicit circulation through collection, destruction and improved stockpile management and the regulation of trade aspects of conventional arms transfers.
It is very clear that all instruments have their own weaknesses and strengths and there is need for further analysis to identify responses to control emerging threats, such as the deployment of autonomous weapons systems, the use of 3-D printing for manufacturing of firearms' parts and the use of drones as a tool for trafficking. It is also evident that several countries are party to several of these instruments, which can pose potential challenges in the process of harmonization of national laws. On the other hand, this multiple membership is also an opportunity to identify common approaches, which will lead to complementary and harmonized implementation at the national level.