A central objective of any effective counter-terrorism strategy, which is true of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy 2006 (United Nations CT Strategy) and its annexed Plan of Action (General Assembly resolution 60/288) around which this University Module Series is framed, is to prevent terrorist acts from occurring. Each of the Strategy's four pillars has a preventive role to play. Of particular relevance to this Module is Pillar I, which is concerned with "addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism", especially its relationship with Pillar IV "Ensuring Human Rights and the Rule of Law". Rule of law violations, including those committed by States in the course of their counter-terrorism efforts, are among some of the primary current drivers of violent extremism. In this way, the current Module builds upon Module 1, which introduced students to the concept and historical perspective of terrorism, including some of the different forms that it may take. The primary objective of this Module is to set up some key overarching themes, which are explored in more detail throughout the remainder of the Teaching Module Series (Modules 3-14). In particular, discussion of Pillar I issues is framed around current international efforts and discourse aimed at better understanding and more effectively preventing/countering violent extremism.