National, regional, and international laws can govern behaviour in cyberspace and regulate criminal justice matters relating to cybercrimes. These laws not only set rules and expectations for behaviour, but also the procedures to be followed in the event that the rules are broken and behaviour expectations are not met. However, core cybercrime offences in national laws are not harmonized between countries, complicating international cooperation in criminal justice matters (discussed in detail in Cybercrime Module 7 on International Cooperation against Cybercrime and in the University Module Series on Organize Crime, particularly Module 11 on International Cooperation to Combat Transnational Organized Crime).
The focus of this Module is to describe the legal landscape relating to cybercrime, highlight the need for harmonized legislation, and outline the relationship between cybercrime laws and human rights. As this Module shows, cybercrime laws need to be in compliance with human rights law, and any limitation of a human right needs to be in accordance with human rights standards and principles.