This module is a resource for lecturers




This Module of the UNODC Teaching Module Series on Cybercrime examines topics, such as hacktivism, terrorism, espionage, disinformation campaigns, and warfare in cyberspace, as well as national and international perspectives and responses to these cyber activities. The purpose of this Module is to discuss these topics and identify current debates and conflicting views on these topics within and between countries.


Learning Outcomes

  • Critically examine hacktivism, cyberespionage, cyberterrorism, cyberwarfare, information warfare, disinformation, and electoral fraud
  • Critically discuss and analyse the legal frameworks governing these activities
  • Critically assess the lawfulness of responses to these activities
  • Propose lawful responses to some of these activities
Next: Key issues
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