The investigation of organized crime requires strategies and techniques quite different from conventional crimes. The special investigative techniques described in this Module have been widely used in organized crime investigations. These tools involve more planning, organization, and time-intensive effort than more traditional law enforcement tools, but they are necessary to investigate criminal behaviour that is generally better planned and organized than in traditional crimes. Each investigative technique was shown to have both strengths and weaknesses, and their use needs to balance the competing interests of ensuring public safety through apprehension of criminals with the need to ensure the rights of individuals. Further challenge to investigating organized crime is posed by the vulnerability of victims and witnesses to such crimes.