The right to life lies at the heart of any counter-terrorism strategy, especially the protection of life of civilians who are commonly terrorist targets. Various measures and human rights violations have been a source of contention in relation to right to life issues, including, to name a few, use of the death penalty as punishment for convicted terrorists, enforced disappearances, and targeted killings. The rhetoric surrounding such approaches has, in some instances, obscured the legal framework which governments, law enforcement agencies and the military should follow. An area of special complexity has been where the lines have become blurred between what practice is lawful and legitimate during ordinary peacetime law enforcement scenarios, compared with those occurring in times of armed conflict. In addition, the Module examines a number of problematic practices which, though undesirable including from a human rights law perspective, are nonetheless lawful where strict criteria are met, such as use of the death penalty and targeted killings. In exploring such issues, it further examines the scope of the right to life in relation to counter-terrorism law, policy and practice, considering too some of the difficult questions and predicaments that remain unresolved, including at the national, regional and international levels.