This module is a resource for lecturers

Possible class structure

This section contains recommendations for a teaching sequence and timing intended to achieve learning outcomes through a three-hour class.

NOTE: The class structure proposed is merely indicative. As students' prior knowledge and exposure to these issues varies widely, the lecturer should adapt contents as well as the time suggested for each component of the Module, according to the educational and social context, needs of the students and as otherwise appropriate.

Ice-breaker and attention-catcher

The Module may be started with the projection of the short film Zimbabwean Women Smuggled And Sold As Wives In South Africa (approx. 4:40 minutes) by Sky News. The documentary video provides an account of Zimbabwean women forced into prostitution or sold off into forced marriages by smugglers to pay for their crossing out of the country. Students should discuss whether the cases reported are better classified as smuggling of migrants, trafficking in persons or both. Furthermore, the debate should invite students to reflect on the following:

  • Are there practical differences in prosecuting a perpetrator for smuggling, on the one hand, or trafficking, on the other? Or is it irrelevant as long as criminals are prosecuted?
  • Could it be challenging to distinguish cases of smuggling and trafficking in practice? Please explain.
  • It is important to differentiate between smuggling and trafficking from the perspective of victims' protection and the proper administration of justice. What measures could States endeavour to develop to better identify and distinguish the crime types?


in line with the various subject-matters described in ' Introduction and learning outcomes' (app. 85 minutes)

Break (10 minutes)

Exercises (60 minutes)

  • The class may be divided into two groups with each group being given 20 minutes to analyse the case.
  • Each group should be assigned two questions (of the four proposed questions for discussion). The answers should then be presented (five minutes) to the other group. Each group should evaluate and rate the respective answers on a scale of 1-10 (five minutes).
  • The lecturer should lead a debrief of the case and make a final assessment on the answers and ratings given by the groups (15 minutes).

Back to top