This module is a resource for lecturers


Modules 1 to 5 focus on the smuggling of migrants and Modules 6 to 10 focus on trafficking of persons. Module 11 discusses these two crime types together, with the aim of highlighting the differences and commonalities between them. This Module is practice-oriented and emphasizes the fact that, in reality, cases of migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons often overlap. Smuggling and trafficking conduct commonly exists on a continuum; instances of smuggling may evolve into situations of trafficking, while victims of trafficking may also be smuggled. Attention is drawn to the difficulties in distinguishing between these crimes in practice, together with the important consequences that follow from correct, or incorrect, identification.

Learning outcomes

  • Identify the main differences between smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons
  • Understand that, in reality, smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons are often overlapping and correlated phenomena, that commonly exist on a continuum
  • Comprehend the importance and practical implications of differentiating between cases of smuggling of migrants and cases of trafficking in persons
  • Identify situations where the distinction between smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons might be challenging

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