Modules 1 to 5 focus on the smuggling of migrants and Modules 6 to 10 focus on trafficking of persons. Module 11 discusses these two crime types together, with the aim of highlighting the differences and commonalities between them. This Module is practice-oriented and emphasizes the fact that, in reality, cases of migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons often overlap. Smuggling and trafficking conduct commonly exists on a continuum; instances of smuggling may evolve into situations of trafficking, while victims of trafficking may also be smuggled. Attention is drawn to the difficulties in distinguishing between these crimes in practice, together with the important consequences that follow from correct, or incorrect, identification.