There are international and regional treaties on cybercrime. A case in point is the Council of Europe's Convention on Cybercrime of 2001. This Convention seeks to harmonize national laws, improve cybercrime investigation techniques, and improve international cooperation. It also provides guidance to signatories on the measures needed at the national level to deal with cybercrime, including amendments and additions to substantive law (i.e., to establish cybercrime offences in criminal law) and criminal procedural law (i.e., to establish the procedures for criminal investigations and prosecutions). The Convention further provides signatories with guidance on mutual assistance and acts as a mutual legal assistance treaty (i.e., an agreement between countries to cooperate on investigations and prosecutions of certain and/or all offences proscribed by both parties under national law; Maras, 2016) for countries that do not have one with the country requesting assistance.
Did You Know?
While a number of countries have been pushing for a global convention under the auspice of the United Nations, and the Russian Federation has in particular proposed a "Draft United Nations Convention on Cooperation in Combating Cybercrime" in 2017 ( A/C.3/72/12), to date international consensus on such a global convention within the framework of the United Nations is still insufficient.
There are several cybercrime and cybercrime-related treaties that are region-specific:
Cybercrime laws and directives have also been developed and implemented by regional organizations and/or regional intergovernmental organizations. Examples include:
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Directive on Fighting Cybercrime of 2011. This directive requires member states to criminalize cybercrime in national law and facilitate mutual legal assistance, cooperation, and extradition in cybercrime and cybersecurity-related matters. ECOWAS has a Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters and a Convention on Extradition to facilitate cooperation in cybercrime investigations and extradite cybercriminals.