Instructions: For multiple-choice questions, circle the appropriate letter (e.g., “a”, “b”, “c”, etc.). For true-false questions, circle “True” or “False.”
1. The three ‘non-traditional’ approaches to the prevention of organized crime presented in this Module include:
a) Community approaches; law/enforcement/criminal justice prevention; private sector involvement
b) Community approaches; law/enforcement/criminal justice prevention; international and domestic cooperation
c) Community approaches; regulatory, disruption and non-justice system approaches; private sector involvement
d) None of the above
2. The three most significant ‘non-traditional’ approaches to the prevention of organized crime were elaborated by Levi and Maguire (2004) based on the research produced by Schneider (2001). They are also known as penal/criminal approaches.
3. Community crime prevention places emphasis on strengthening communities through the provision of services that build connections between community members and link them with external resources and services that can help them combat crime.
4. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) identifies “high-risk jurisdictions” subject to a Call for Action. These are:
a) Countries with high tax evasion rates
b) Countries with significant strategic deficiencies in their regimes to counter money-laundering and terrorist financing
c) Countries at a high-risk of being subject to cyberattacks
d) Countries particularly affected by organized crime
5. Screening and monitoring persons and legal entities in an attempt to exclude criminals from public procurement and construction contracts is an example of:
a) Community approaches to crime prevention
b) Domestic cooperation
c) Use of regulatory powers to disrupt ‘criminal business’
d) Fiscal strategies against organized crime
6. UNODC’s Expert Group on Civilian Private Security Services (2011) highlighted that in some States there has been evidence of problems associated with the expansion in the size and role of the private security industry. These might include:
a) Organized crime infiltration and corruption in the industry
b) Little or no training for civilian private security guards
c) Abuse of authority and excessive use of force by personnel
d) Inadequate legal accountability mechanisms
e) All of the above
f) None of the above
7. As defined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, corporate social responsibility refers to ‘the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large’.
8. Conviction-based confiscation __________________________ .
a) can be carried out only once the property’s owner has been convicted of certain crimes
b) often requires the same standard of proof as that required to achieve a criminal conviction
c) undermines the fiscal structure and even the survival of an organized criminal group
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
9. The Nelson Mandela Rules establish that solitary confinement, used both during pre-trial and post-trial detention, should always be:
a) Limited in time
b) Subject to independent review
c) Applied only pursuant to the authorization by a competent authority
d) All of the above
10. The most important legally binding instruments in the field of organized crime are the Organized Crime Convention and its three supplementing Protocols as well as the Corruption Convention. These treaties formalized a significant proportion of the United Nations standards and norms on crime prevention and criminal justice – that are internationally agreed non-binding normative resolutions - in binding international law for their States parties.
[Answer key: 1. c; 2. false; 3. true; 4. b; 5. c; 6.e; 7. true; 8. d; 9. d; 10. true]