This module is a resource for lecturers

Key Issues

There is significant confusion around hacktivism, cyberespionage, cyberterrorism, cyber warfare, information warfare, disinformation and voter fraud. These terms have been used by the media, politicians, academics and practitioners often interchangeably. The misuse of these terms has led to violations of the rule of law and human rights against those deemed to be involved in these activities.

Next: Hacktivism
Back to top