The purpose of an organized criminal group is:
a) To commit one or more serious crimes
b) To obtain directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit
c) To control territory
d) All of the above
Scholars generally agree that the definition of terrorism evolves over time, is not static, and it varies according to _________.
a) Geographical region and political need
b) The nature of activities performed by terrorist groups
c) The political goals of terrorist groups
d) None of the above
According to the Organize Crime Convention, an offence is transnational in nature only if the members of the organized criminal group are of different nationalities or commit the crime while crossing an international border.
The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, adopted by Member States in September 2006 and reviewed by the UNGA every two years, is the first one to provide a common strategic and operational approach to fight terrorism.
Although the scope of application of the Organized Crime Convention is limited to crimes that are a) transnational in nature and b) involve an organized criminal group, these two limitations are not to be considered elements of those offences in domestic legislation for criminalization purposes. What does this mean?
a) States parties should limit the scope of application of their criminal legislation to offences that are transnational and involve an organized criminal group
b) States parties are called to pass legislation which does not include the transnational elements or the involvement of organized criminal groups as requirements of applicability, in order to avoid possible loopholes in domestic systems
c) States parties need to adopt two sets of legislation, at least one of which should not include these two criteria
d) None of the above
For the purpose of this Module, linkages between organized crime and terrorism include:
a) Terrorists and organized criminal groups cooperating through their engagement in criminal activity
b) Terrorist groups involved in organized criminal activity
c) Transformations of the two groups involving organizational links and similarities
d) Competition between both types of groups necessitating contact between them
e) Organized criminal groups committing acts of terrorism
f) All of the above
With Security Council resolution 1267 (1999), the United Nations recognized _________________ as a terrorist organization.
a) The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)
c) The Taliban
d) Al Nusrah Front (ANF)
The 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings requires States parties to adopt national legislation that criminalizes the intentional delivery, placement, discharge, or detonation of an explosive or other lethal device in, into or against a place of public use, a State or government facility, a public transportation system or an infrastructure facility, with the intent to:
a) Cause death or serious bodily injury
b) Cause extensive destruction of such a place, facility or system, where such destruction results in or is likely to result in major economic loss
c) Cause civil unrest
d) *A and B
e) All of the above
More than one of the 19 international instruments designed to counter terrorism recognized by the United Nations requires that States parties adopt appropriate legislation to ensure that those criminal acts outlined in those instruments are not justified by political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, or religious considerations.
Williams identified three distinct hypothetical models of interaction between organized crime and terrorism:
a) Alliance - nexus - transformation
b) Convergence - nexus - transformation
c) Convergence - operational motivations - transformation
d) Convergence - nexus - the black hole