Base de datos bibliográficos

Tráfico ilícito de migrantes

    Irregular Migration: Causes, Patterns and Strategies

    • Referencia bibliográfica

      • Autores

        • • Cubas, M.
          • Kim, C.
          • Ozkul, D.
          • Castles, S.
          • Omelaniuk, I. (ed)
      • Fuente:
        Global Perspectives on Migration and Development, vol. 1
      • Año de publicación:
      • Ciudad:
      • Paginas:
      • Editorial:
    • Palabras clave

      • • Factores que alimentan la migración irregular
        • Migración irregular
    • Método de investigación:
    • Resumen

      This book chapter looks at the flows of irregular migration across the globe as well as the motivations and strategies employed by irregular migrants to reach destination countries. It also examines the policy responses of various States to irregular migration and highlights the flaws in these policies. The authors advocate a more humane approach to irregular migration that safeguards the rights and legitimate interests of migrants and a shift in public attitudes towards irregular migrants.

      The authors discuss the concepts of illegal, undocumented, unauthorized and clandestine migration. They argue that public perceptions of irregular migration have become highly politicized and that these terms are now value-laden and often negative.

      The chapter discusses the national laws and regulations that many States have introduced to restrict entry for asylum seekers, despite being signatories to the United Nations 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. The authors argue that this creates the paradox in which asylum seekers have a right to apply for asylum but cannot enter a country legally to do so and therefore have to enter in an irregular way, sometimes with the assistance of migrant smugglers. The authors also discuss globalization as a cause of irregular migration and argue that irregular migrants help provide the labour market flexibility central to neoliberal globalization.

      The chapter presents the position that many of the strategies and measures adopted by States and intergovernmental organizations to combat irregular migration are concerned with identifying, apprehending, detaining and deporting irregular migrants. These strategies lead to violations of the human rights of migrants and can be counterproductive because they force migrants underground and make them even more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by smugglers and unscrupulous employers. The authors state that the main cause of irregular migration is not disregard of regulations by migrants but rather the growth of inequality within and between countries and the failure of States to create adequate migration regimes to meet economic demand. They contend that strategies to respond to irregular migration need to address its fundamental causes while safeguarding the rights and legitimate interests of irregular migrants. The chapter discusses some recent practical responses to irregular migration, including assisted voluntary return and reintegration programmes, regional consultative processes and circular or temporary migration schemes.

      The authors also call for a fundamental change in attitudes as an important step towards fairer and more effective migration policies. They argue that migration should be seen not as a threat to state security but as a result of the human insecurity that arises through global inequality.

      The chapter provides insights into the causes and flows of irregular migration and examines available data on irregular migration in various world regions. Through the analysis of this information and the case studies on Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, Republic of Korea and Turkey, the chapter contributes to the body of knowledge on irregular migration.